Posts in category: "Children"
Kids Without Internet Get No Help from FCCSubmitted by Cheryl Mon Mar 02 2015 18:30:00 GMT-0500 (EST)
Working on social justice always involves steps forward and steps back. Even as last week we celebrated a step forward in communications policy, today we are pushed forcefully back. Today's 2 and a half page ruling by the Federal Communications Commission to reject two 10-year old petitions consisting of hundreds of pages by the United Church of Christ's media justice ministry and its partners are as deaf to the public interest and the Commission's role as any rulings under any administration.
At the same time that Chairman Wheeler stood up to special interests in the Net Neutrality vote last week, the FCC's media bureau--which ultimately reports to the Chairman's office--was busy taking dictation from the broadcast lobby. The losers are children who rely on broadcast TV—which is a lot of low income families and households of color.
These complaints were part of a series of complaints filed in 2004 and 2005. These complaints were designed to give the FCC a chance to issue rulings that would clarify that some of the most egregious violations of the Children's Television Act were out of bounds. We challenged soap operas posing as educational television for Spanish-speaking children. We challenged programming filled with advertisements for Medigap insurance and incontinence products as clearly not directed to children. We challenged programming described by our expert analysts as "among the most violent children’s shows … seen in … 20 years of studying children’s television" as insufficient to meet the children's educational obligations of broadcasters.
While those petitions took immense resources and involvement from churches and communities all around the country, these examples were selected because they were egregious and obvious violations of law. In 2007 the Bush FCC fined Univision $24 million dollars--at the time the largest FCC fine ever levied--based on one of the petition about the now-infamous Complices al Rescate soap opera. Eight years ago, the pending NBC acquisition forced the FCC to take the petition seriously. Today, we have no merger to focus attention on broadcasters, and this order is released on Wheeler's watch when attention is focused elsewhere.
In the distant future, the business of television might well exclude any reliance on FCC licenses. But that time is not now. As we explained recently in a letter to the FCC asking them to take up this issue, the nearly 100 million US households that don’t subscribe to broadband are more likely to depend on broadcast TV for educational shows and, according to the National Association of Broadcasters, minorities currently make up 41% of broadcast-only homes. For the children in these households, educational programming at home comes from broadcast TV.
And today the FCC's action told these children that no one is willing to look out for them.
Digital Advertising Targets Youth of Color - Tweet Chat RecapSubmitted by Cheryl Thu Apr 17 2014 15:58:37 GMT-0400 (EDT)
UCC Media Justice participated today in a tweet chat, co-sponsored by the Digital Ads campaign, which is a joint project of Center for Digital Democracy and Berkeley Media Studies Group, discussing the negative impact digital advertising has on children, and in particular children of color. There is much to be said on this topic, including the horrible immorality of targeting children whose health is already in danger. According to the CDC, 17% of kids today obese, higher for African Americans and Latinos: 22% and 20%; 1 in 5 kids! As the American Academy of Pediatrics noted, exposure to advertising is associated w/ child obesity, poor nutrition, and cigarettes & alcohol.
Digital marketing takes advantage of big data to target children in subtle ways. Extensive studies show that younger kids have a hard time understanding advertising -- that the advertisers do not have their best interest at heart in the same way that a teacher who gives advice has. In addition, the tweet chat discussed new marketing techniques using neuroscience to subtly reach around parents into a teen's subconscious to make unhealthful food more desirable. And digital marketing is ubiquitous, as children spend more and more time online.
Digital advertising directed toward kids is based also on the techniques perfected by Big Data, which has begun to gain the attention of the civil rights community. An important safeguard is giving users, including parents, control over their own data. While data can be helpful, it can also target communities and individuals in harmful ways. A large number of public interest organizations encouraged the White House to consider health in its current study of Big Data.
Studies have shown that children of color are on the receiving end of much more advertising than white children. For example, a recent study by researcher Dale Kunkel showed that more than 84% of all foods and beverages advertised to children on Spanish-language television shows are unhealthy. Another study showed African American children and teens see at least 50% more fast food ads than their white peers.
There are more resources online to learn about this issue. Salud Today has several great online videos about junk food marketing to Latino children, including this one. We particularly liked the Rudd Center's resources, including one on the challenges of weight bias and bullying directed toward kids who are overweight, and this report that discusses marketing to African American and Latino children.
As we said toward the end of the tweetchat:
Check out all the great information shared in the tweet chat by searching #DigitalAds and visiting http://www.digitalads.org/ online.
Join us! Ideas for an Online Justice Agenda for Extravagance UCCSubmitted by Cheryl Fri Nov 15 2013 09:37:02 GMT-0500 (EST)
Last week I attended an important meeting hosted by the United Church of Christ: a meeting to envision what a UCC community could look like that existed mostly, or solely, online. I attended the meeting as a representative of the UCC's historic media justice ministry, which goes by the name of OC Inc. The leaders of Extravagance asked us to envision a community that could reach people who did not have a local UCC church, or were not comfortable or able to come to a physical building. It was a great treat to be with so many people who were both heavily invested in the church and also deeply immersed in new technology.
During the meeting we spent considerable time discussing what is church and what a church online could be. As I reflected on the meeting afterward, I was excited to see where this next chapter of ministry would lead the UCC. I also was delighted because the UCC has been such a significant leader in communications rights and media justice, and this new ministry is a chance to deepen further the modern connection to this work. As is true with most UCC churches, I hope an important part of the new work is social justice ministry. And the world of communications rights and media justice would be a logical focus. As the UCC and other churches embrace virtual community, it is important that we understand the inherent justice challenges in the new technological landscape. Just as we fight to improve the functioning of democracy even as we advocate as part of our civic institutions, we should maintain a focus on the just use of technology as we utilize it to bring full incarnation to the United Church of Christ online.
To that end, I thought it would be useful to lay out a few of the justice issues that UCC OC Inc. is working on now, to offer them for consideration as the Extravagance team considers how to move ahead.
Social media: making our members into a product? Social media is part of modern life, whereas in previous decades in the U.S. we used to socialize in bowling leagues and church social halls, we now have moved to virtual communities. According to the Pew Internet and American Life Project, as of May 2013, 72 percent of online adults use social networking sites, even those ages 65 and older have roughly tripled their presence on social networking sites in the last four years. Half of teenagers own smartphones.
But social media is a business; it is not a church-owned social hall. Social media companies have offered many services for free, but as many a wag has noted, if the product is "free" you are the product. For example, Facebook's new policies on including user images in advertising are currently under federal investigation. And this does not even begin to address the data the government might be collecting in violation of our civil liberties, and the civil liberties of perhaps some of our sister and brother faith communities, such as the Muslim community. UCC OC Inc. has been involved in seeking improved choices by the companies themselves, and also improved regulation to protect children and teens.
Social media: who decides what we see? Moreover, social media users cannot make their own ethical choices about what they see and what others see -- so we may not be able to see images of breastfeeding mothers, at the same time that violence against women is distributed widely. It was great to see the successful campaign to persuade Facebook to address violence against women more actively. Twitter just became a public company--the drive to earn revenue will increase. In my conversations with UCC leaders, at least some online users have felt that Facebook's system of advertising feedback lead to their advertisements being pulled--not that different from when UCC's still speaking advertisements were pulled from some television stations.
As we use social media, such as public and private Facebook pages, YouTube, Pinterest and others, it is important to remain aware that we are meeting in a for-profit public space. As we use the technology--which we should--we cannot stop pushing for it to be more just in its implementation.
Fair rules of the road for unpopular or noncommercial content. Today, for the most part, when people view video streaming or other content online, their only limit is in the speed of their broadband connection. But those days are not likely continue, especially absent strong widespread public engagement. This is perhaps one of the most fundamental communications justice issues afoot, largely occurring outside of the public eye. It extends the for-profit meeting hall metaphor to a new level--in the U.S. the physical networks, the wires, that we use to connect with each other are owned by private companies.
While for much of the Internet's history regulations governed the use of these wires, it is no longer the case. For this reason, UCC OC Inc. is part of the effort to persuade the US to adopt policies mandating "net neutrality" or "open access." It is the principle that private companies that own the wires cannot use the wires as a monopoly for their own gain at the expense of other content. In the past commercial networks have removed controversial content and blocked large downloads (of the Bible no less!). Network companies are considering charging content creators to distribute content--like the potential deal between ESPN and Internet companies. But what about noncommercial content? Who can pay for the distribution of church content, social justice advocacy and content serving vulnerable communities? Will church YouTube channels go the way of cable access while commercial content is still as powerful as NBC or ABC today? UCC OC Inc. is a leader in demonstrating open Internet is important to the faith community and others.
A good example of this is text messaging. The parameters for text message donations are set by the mobile phone companies that control them. Currently donations are capped at $10 each. These rules are not designed to undercut noncommercial or church fund-raising, but the impact is the same. And occasional mistakes show that non-profits and churches have little leverage in these relationships. In another recent change, just this week Comcast started to experiment with data caps--one industry publication estimated this might cost 40 cents per hour for Netflix movies. While this is a small sum today, the potential if this were to be a routine industry practice is of concern. Historically we have always set aside space for noncommercial speech and civic discourse--whether that was the town square or public broadcasting. The noncommercial space of tomorrow without net neutrality is fragile, which is why UCC OC Inc. helped lead the National Council of Churches Communication Commission to adopt a resolution supporting net neutrality. But we don't have a UCC synod resolution yet -- maybe it is time?
Access to communications for all. Thirty percent of people (90 million) do not have broadband access at home, for reasons of cost, access, and digital illiteracy. And people of color are much more likely than whites to access broadband via mobile devices, with all the bandwidth and other limits those devices bring--it is still very difficult to apply for a job or write a resume on a smart phone. In fact, the government program to support simple voice telephones for low-income people is under attack. And while UCC OC Inc. and a range of allies have just persuaded the Federal Communications Commission to bring down the price of a long-distance telephone call to prison, the prison industrial complex is developing ways to charge families and inmates for the use of email and video conferencing. A young LGBT person in rural America might not be able to access the many resources available without broadband; an impoverished family in the inner-city might be sending their children to McDonald's to access broadband to do their homework. UCC OC Inc. has been a leader in advocating for policies to support technology for underserved communities.
Ethical use of technology. As we have started to explore what theology might look like and mean online, we also face some practical immediate questions about how to go about using it as ethical people. An obvious point for people of faith is the importance of addressing online bullying. But other questions abound -- the UCC Insurance Boards have started to offer guidance for the appropriate ways for clergy and members to communicate online in a manner that echoes the UCC's safe church initiative. This is a rapidly evolving field where some of the most cautious advice may be hard to implement if we are to truly become an online community.
While technology can improve and augment in-person and long-distance relationships, technology can also become a crutch or a wall between us and our loved ones. There is an emerging community looking at media fasts, technology Sabbaths and other techniques to make sure technology plays a helpful and supportive role, but does not move into negative or obsessive behavior. Check out UCC OC Inc.'s media violence fast next September, and the technology Sabbath March 2014.
Children. As adults we can model appropriate use of technology for our children. An astounding 38 percent of children under two years old have used a mobile device and three quarters of children under eight have access to a mobile device at home, while the under-eight crowd's total screen time still totals almost 2 hours daily. As the technology visionary Sherry Turkle noted in Alone Together, while teens recognize that they often overindulge in technology and communications, they are anxiously looking to see whether the adults in their lives can offer positive role models. Do we stack up? Do we put away mobile phones and blackberries at dinner, when our children are talking to us? A supportive community will both use and manage media well, for example using these resources from the American Academy of Pediatrics for children's media use.
The world of communications justice is vibrant. UCC is a leader and has partners in organizations like the World Association for Christian Communications. As we move ahead on the grand experiment of Extravagance UCC, it is also time to more fully embrace our long history in justice online. We invite everyone working on Extravagance to join us! Let's start a dialogue about how we can work together.
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Children and the Internet -- Good and Bad NewsSubmitted by Cheryl Tue Sep 17 2013 12:56:29 GMT-0400 (EDT)
Yesterday, UCC OC Inc. joined two important efforts with children forefront in our minds. We joined with our colleagues at the Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights as we spoke out in comments before the Federal Communications Commission in support of the President's ConnectED proposal to increase the Internet capacity of schools and libraries around the country.
On a different note, we joined with a wide array of consumer, children's and privacy advocates to ask the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to protect teens from marketing. Much has been published lately about "big data" and its power in the modern day. While we are concerned about adults and children, teens are particularly susceptible to marketing from their peer groups, and Facebook recently changed its policy with regard to teens.
On the good news front for kids and privacy, this summer the FTC adopted strengthened rules to protect children's privacy. Companies should be complying with these rules already. If you have kids, keep an eye out -- see if the online media your child uses complies with the new rules. Check out Center for Digital Democracy's Parent's Guide. Here are a few highlights, download the guide for the full story:
- Talk with your children about what they do and where they go online, as well as what apps they download on their mobile phones. Make sure that the media they are engaging with is age-appropriate.
- Explain to them that they need to be very careful about what they post online about themselves.
- Be wary of websites, mobile apps, and other child-oriented digital media that ask for a lot of personal information that does not seem necessary.
- Be especially careful about your children’s use of mobile phones. Mobile apps should never ask your child to give permission for collection of her location without first obtaining your permission.
- Some apps may be “free” to download, but once children begin playing with them, they may be prompted by the app to purchase multiple items in the game (“virtual goods”). This practice can rack up a very high bill without parents knowing.
- Review the privacy policies of all the websites and digital devices your children use to make sure you are comfortable about the safety, security, and privacy protections provided on them.
Media Justice Victory - Supreme Court Rules FCC Can Protect ChildrenSubmitted by Cheryl Thu Jun 21 2012 14:16:00 GMT-0400 (EDT)
In response to the Supreme Court's decision today in Fox v. FCC, Cheryl Leanza, Policy Director of the United Church of Christ, Office of Communication, Inc. stated:
While the Supreme Court today found that the Federal Communications Commission’s procedures were flawed, it did not reverse course on the fundamental constitutional doctrine underpinning the regulations protecting children in the media. This decision thus permits further action on some of the most important issues relating to children and media today--whether it is the relationship of the media marketplace to childhood obesity, aggressive and inappropriate advertising, or the limited amounts of high-quality educational television for children of all backgrounds. We are gratified that the Supreme Court heeded the call of the Children’s Media Policy Coalition and left this critical doctrine intact. UCC OC Inc. encourages the Commission to use its authority in a manner that offers clarity to broadcasters and parents alike.
UCC OC Inc. filed an amicus brief in this case as part of the Children’s Media Policy Coalition.